The retina is a thin, delicate layer of tissue situated in the back wall of the eye. It is located near the optic nerve. The purpose of the retina is to receive light and convert the light into neural signals, which reach the brain for visual recognition.
Even the slightest of change or shift in the retina can have big consequences. Retinal diseases vary widely, but most of them cause visual symptoms that are easily detectable. The most common symptoms of retinal dysfunction are
- Seeing floating specks or cobwebs
- Blurred or distorted vision
- Defects in the side vision
- Lost vision
It is important to contact an eye clinic when you see these symptoms. It’s best to seek medical aid and eradicate the problem before it’s too late. Our clinic offers treatment for the following types of retinal ailments.
If you have diabetes, the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) in the back of your eye can deteriorate and leak fluid into and under the retina. This causes the retina to swell, which may blur or distort your vision. You may also develop new, abnormal capillaries that break and bleed which worsens your vision.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration
In macular degeneration, the center of your retina begins to deteriorate. This causes symptoms such as blurred central vision or a blind spot in the center of the visual field. There are two types — wet macular degeneration and dry macular degeneration. Initially, people usually have the dry form, which can progress to the wet form in one or both eyes.
Retinal Venous Occlusions
When a vein in the retina becomes blocked, it’s called retinal vein occlusion. This can give you a blurry vision or even sudden permanent blindness in that eye.
Retinal degeneration is a leading cause of incurable low vision and blindness worldwide. Most retinal degenerative diseases are caused by irreversible apoptosis of retinal neural cells or adjacent supporting tissue.
A macular hole is a small defect in the center of the retina at the back of your eye (macula). The hole may develop from abnormal traction between the retina and the vitreous, or it may follow an injury to the eye.
Epiretinal membrane is a delicate tissue-like scar or membrane that looks like crinkled cellophane lying on top of the retina. This membrane pulls up on the retina, which distorts your vision. Objects may appear blurred or crooked.
Vitreomacular traction (VMT) syndrome is a potentially visually significant disorder of the vitreoretinal interface characterized by an incomplete posterior vitreous detachment with the persistently adherent vitreous exerting tractional pull on the macula and resulting in morphologic alterations and the consequent decline of visual function.
A vitreous haemorrhage occurs when blood leaks into the vitreous ‘gel’ inside the eye, causing vision loss. Vitreous haemorrhage normally occurs suddenly, and without any pain. Symptoms range from the sudden appearance of spots or floaters in your vision to a sudden blurring of vision, and in severe cases, sudden blindness.
Some people find that their vision tends to be worse in the morning, as the blood has settled to the back of their eye during the night.
This can be removed with vitrectomy surgery, which may also be required to treat the cause of the haemorrhage.
Peripheral Retinal Degenerations
Peripheral retinal degenerations usually start in the mid-peripheral retina of the eye; an area surrounding the central retina. As the degeneration progresses, the peripheral retina may lose its function. Eventually, only the central retina functions, leading to tunnel vision.